<At present, every three seconds, there will be a dementia patient in the world, falling into the trouble of memory.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. There are many theories about the cause of Alzheimer's disease, but the researchers basically agree that the incidence of Alzheimer's disease is higher in women than in men. There are currently 8 million-10 million Alzheimer's patients in China. With the aging of the population, the number of Alzheimer's patients will continue to increase in the future, and the"winning rate"of older women will be even higher.
in 2011, the Alzheimer's Association released Alzheimer's Disease Facts and data. The report shows that 3.4 million of the 5.4 million Alzheimer's patients in the United States are women. 1/6 of women over the age of 60 suffer from Alzheimer's disease, compared with 1/11 of men over the age of 60. Why is the prevalence rate higher in women than in men?
many studies have given the simplest explanation for this phenomenon: women live longer.
according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average life expectancy for girls born in 2005 is 80 years, while that for boys born in the same year is 75 years. So why do more and more women tend to suffer from Alzheimer's disease? The reason may be that they are just more vulnerable to the biggest risk factor associated with Alzheimer's disease: aging.
new theories are constantly being refreshed. At the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease held in Los Angeles on July 16, 2019, scientists suggested that Alzheimer's disease may spread differently in the brains of women than men, revealing why women are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than men."it's not just because we live longer,"said Maria Carrillo (Maria Carrillo), chief scientific officer of the association. The gender differences in the disease also have a"biological basis."Previous studies have shown that women of any age are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than men. Scientists also know that at a certain age, a gene called APOE-4 appears to have a higher risk of developing disease in women than in men. This time, researchers at Vanderbilt University found differences in the way tau proteins are transmitted in the brains of women and men. Tau protein is thought to be another protein that is dysfunctional and deposited in nerve cells in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. By scanning 301 people with normal thinking and 161 people with mild brain damage, the scientists mapped the location of tau protein deposition and linked it to neural networks, the highway on which brain signals run. The results showed that women with mild brain damage had a more scattered network of tau proteins than men, and more areas of the brain were affected by tau. In June 2019, researchers at the Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases in Bonn, Germany, published the association between tau protein and Alzheimer's disease in a model animal, (Science Advances). They used the new strategy in turn to explore the effects of age, specific brain regions, and tau protein aggregation and folding errors on the transmission of tau protein in the brains of living mice. Studies have finally revealed that tau protein aggregates move along nerve fibers, leading to the spread of disease in the brain.
the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease has not been fully explored, and studies have said that compared with men, women's level of education, physical exercise habits and even the ability to withstand stress, may be the reasons for the huge difference in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease between the two.
scientists already know that women are far more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease than men, and new research has found that stress may also contribute.
A 2005 study published in the journal Mental Neuroendocrinology (Psychoneuroendocrinology) showed that the amount of cortisol produced by everyone in the face of stress tends to increase with age, and the body of women in their 60s and early 70s produces three times as much cortisol as men of the same age. A study published in May 2019 by Johns Hopkins University in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry) further revealed the relationship between stress-induced cortisol and Alzheimer's disease. The results show that cumulative stress has a significant impact on women's memory, which may be one of the reasons why women are much more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease and related diseases than men. The researchers analyzed information from 909 participants in Baltimore who participated in a long-term study by the National Institute of Mental Health. In a follow-up study of older people, the study found that women appeared to be more likely than men to suffer from memory loss due to stress.
these participants were originally recruited in the early 1980s, and all the participants in the study were enrolled in the 1990s at the age of about 47, bringing them close to 60 in the final round of tests. (after registration, participants returned to the trial site for three interviews and inspections: one in 1982, one in 1993-1996 and one in 2003-2004.
Cynthia Munro (Cynthia Munro), a professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University, and her collaborators observed levels of the stress hormone cortisol in different places. They used standardized learning and memory tests developed by Iowa researchers to test participants. The test included asking participants to recall 20 words as soon as they heard them say them out loud and recall them again 20 minutes later. Between the third and fourth visits, the number of words participants were able to remember decreased. (this is normal: studies have shown that as people get older, their memory declines in a variety of ways as their brains change.) The researchers then looked at whether stress life experiences or traumatic events had an effect on these memory decline. In the last two examinations, participants were asked if they had experienced any traumatic incidents (rape or assault) in the past year. They were also asked if they had experienced any stressful life experiences (relatively routine things, such as unemployment, marriage or divorce). About 22 per cent of men and 23 per cent of women had experienced at least one traumatic event the year before the visit. About 47% of men and 50% of women had at least one stressful life experience the year before the visit. The study found that for women, stressful life experiences were associated with a higher risk of poor performance on memory tests.
unlike men, middle-aged women experience more stress events, and their memory decreases after a decade. The cognitive vulnerability of gender differences to life stress events may be responsible for the increased risk of memory impairment in women in their later years, suggesting that stress reduction interventions may help prevent cognitive decline in women. There are still many questions to be solved about the link between memory and stress and how stress affects different groups. The researchers say stress cannot be removed, but the impact on brain function can be improved by adjusting the way stress is dealt with.
data from the World Alzheimer's report show that since 1998, medical researchers have tested 100 drugs, but only four have been approved for use. Moreover, these approved drugs do not work well, but only relieve symptoms.
what is more serious is that due to the lack of prevention and treatment methods and the lack of specific drugs in the world, the disease has a trend of early onset age and an increase in the number of patients, causing great pain to patients and their families, and at the same time bringing a heavy burden to the society. There is a long way to go to develop drugs, but humans cannot wait to die, and scientists are trying to delay Alzheimer's disease by taking other measures before a specific drug is born.
multiple lifestyles intervene or permit maximum memory protection. In April 2019, a new study published in the Lancet Global Health (The Lancet Global Health) found that nearly half of dementia in low-and middle-income countries such as China can be prevented by changing risk factors. Researchers at University College London went on to collect data from China, India and Latin America. The sample size of China and India is more than 2000, and the sample size of Latin American countries is between 1000 and 3000. The study found that preventive intervention in the nine triggers of Alzheimer's disease identified in previous studies, namely, low levels of early education, hearing loss, smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, lack of physical activity, social isolation, depression and diabetes may help to reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease.
the World Health Organization's latest guidelines on dementia prevention also recommend improved lifestyles, such as increased exercise, a balanced diet (which consists mainly of plant-based foods) and as little alcohol as possible. Now we know that perhaps stress reduction strategies are another way to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and allow older people to live a more fulfilling and productive life.